Table 1.

Volatile compounds so far identified in mandibular gland extracts (GC/MS) of Trigona spinipes and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, arranged according to substance class

T. spinipesS. aff. depilis
Alcohols
   2-Heptanol*++++++
   2-Octanol*++
   2-Nonanol*++
   1-Nonanol++
   2-Undecanol*+
   2-Tridecanol*++++
   2-Pentadecanol*+++
   2-Heptadecanol*++
   Docosenol**+
Hydrocarbons
   Dodecene**+
   Dodecene**+
   Dodecene**+
   Tetradecene**++
   Tetradecane++
   Pentadecane+
   Hexadecene**++
   Hexadecane++
   Octadecene**++
   Octadecane++
   Heneicosene**+
   Tricosene**+
   Pentacosene**+
Terpenes and lactones
   Citral/geranial+
   Farnesol++
   Lactones
   γ-Decalactone?
Ketones
   2-Heptanone++
   2-Nonanone+
   (Z6)-Undecen-2-one ?+
   2-Undecanone++
   2-Dodecanone+
   2-Tridecanone++++
   2-Tridecenone+
   2-Pentadecanone++
   2-Heptadecanone++
Esters
   Undetermined hexanoate+
   Pentyl hexanoate?+
   2-Pentyl hexanoate ?+
   Hexyl hexanoate+
   2-Heptyl hexanoate ?+
   2-Heptyl hexenoate E2?+
   Undetermined butyrate+
Aldehydes
   Nonanal+++
   Docosenal**++
   Docosenal**++
Aromatic compounds
   2-Phenylethanol+++
   Benzaldehyde++++
   Phenylacetaldehyde++
   Methyl benzoate+
  • Quantification of single compounds relative to the sum of all detected peak areas:+++, >10%,++, >1%+, <1%

  • * Enantiomeric composition not determined in this study [determined for Scaptotrigona in Engels et al. (Engels et al., 1990)]

  • ** double bond position not determined