Table 2.

Means, standard deviations and ranges of the five independent variables and speed and in walking and running

Body mass (kg)Toe length (mm)Speed (m s–1)Contact time (s)Toe contact time (s)Toe-out angle (deg.)
Walks (W)72.5±15 (49–112)69±6.3 (58–84)1.56±0.22 (1.07–1.96)0.61±0.06 (0.51–0.78)0.34±0.05 (0.25–0.42)12.3±5.8 (4.5–25.8)
Runs (R)3.69±0.57 (2.46–4.68)0.23±0.03 (0.17–0.29)0.16±0.04 (0.10–0.28)10.6±4.9 (1.1–19.3)
  • Speed was estimated by the horizontal distance travelled by the hip marker over stance. Data derived from force plate trials (means ± s.d.)