Table 2.

Plasma glucose, glycogen in gastrocnemius, soleus and liver, and GLUT-in gastrocnemius, of control (C) and high runner (HR) lines of house mice

TraitGroupTransformNControlHR normalHR miniLine typeMini muscleEstrous cycleAgeTimeRevolutions
Plasma glucose1^1.55710.7210.4010.43F1,6=0.16F1,41=0.00F4,41=0.72F1,41=2.02F1,41=0.48F1,41=0.19
P=0.7068P=0.9663P=0.5822P=0.1632P=0.4926P=0.6620 [–]
2^1.8658.849.569.37F1,6=2.40F1,49=0.38F4,49=0.81 F1,49=16.23 F1,49=4.60 F1,49=6.53
P=0.1725P=0.5424P=0.5223 P=0.0002 P=0.0370 P=0.0138 [–]
3^1.8618.818.919.45F1,6=0.04F1,45=1.79F4,45=0.27F1,45=0.94 F1,45=4.25 F1,45=7.60
P=0.8465P=0.1873P=0.8987P=0.3369 P=0.0451 P=0.0084 [–]
4^0.5449.879.5110.19F1,6=0.74F1,29=1.44 F4,29=5.85 F1,29=2.03F1,29=0.01
P=0.4224P=0.2406 P=0.0014 P=0.1651P=0.9296
Glycogen gastrocnemius1^0.36516.9612.3837.52F1,6=1.70 F1,49=35.03 F4,49=1.32F1,49=0.23F1,49=0.11F1,49=2.89
P=0.2396 P<0.0001 P=0.2774P=0.6346P=0.7450P=0.0954 [+]
2^0.36716.4616.6542.48F1,6=0.00 F1,51=40.74 F4,51=2.23F1,51=0.59 F1,51=4.17 F1,51=0.03
P=0.9593 P<0.0001 P=0.0785P=0.4468 P=0.0463 P=0.8739 [–]
3^0.56519.5423.2836.69F1,6=0.55 F1,47=7.69 F4,47=0.26F1,47=3.42F1,47=0.10F1,47=1.45
P=0.4876 P=0.0079 P=0.9018P=0.0708P=0.7476P=0.2349 [+]
4None4515.9310.0840.98F1,6=2.05 F1,30=42.99 F4,30=0.64F1,30=2.16F1,30=0.02
P=0.2025 P<0.0001 P=0.6356P=0.1524P=0.8973
Glycogen soleus1^0.26521.9525.8332.52F1,6=0.52F1,49=1.61F4,49=1.05F1,49=0.02F1,49=2.00F1,49=0.17
P=0.4960P=0.2101P=0.3923P=0.8790P=0.1631P=0.6828 [+]
2^0.86718.0620.7242.02F1,6=0.30 F1,50=24.00 F4,50=3.46 F1,50=0.00 F1,50=9.14 F1,50=2.47
P=0.6061 P<0.0001 P=0.0142 P=0.9607 P=0.0039 P=0.1226 [–]
3^1.36522.5744.6250.02 F1,6=10.93 F1,47=1.23F4,47=1.08F1,47=1.53F1,47=1.18F1,47=0.39
P=0.0163 P=0.2733P=0.3766P=0.2224P=0.2828P=0.5335 [–]
4^0.24421.8320.2232.48F1,6=0.16F1,29=4.04F4,29=2.28F1,29=1.02F1,29=0.02
P=0.7013P=0.0539P=0.0847P=0.3216P=0.8774
Glycogen liver1^0.056576.4167.5855.59F1,6=0.09F1,49=0.29 F4,49=3.19 F1,49=0.01F1,49=0.07F1,49=0.36
P=0.7791P=0.5936 P=0.0208 P=0.9389P=0.7992P=0.5486 [+]
2^0.367135.78139.01153.35F1,6=0.01F1,51=0.30F4,51=2.09F1,51=2.15F1,51=2.35 F1,51=9.10
P=0.9235P=0.5844P=0.0952P=0.1486P=0.1317P=0.0040 [–]
3^2.365228.42292.47223.70F1,6=3.82 F1,47=5.46 F4,47=0.34F1,47=0.14F1,47=0.04F1,47=0.19
P=0.0983 P=0.0237 P=0.8487P=0.7125P=0.8520P=0.6626 [–]
4Log104326.1329.2156.55F1,6=0.25 F1,28=4.89 F4,28=3.42 F1,28=1.19 F1,28=5.60
P=0.6356 P=0.0353 P=0.0213 P=0.2841 P=0.0251
GLUT-4 gastrocnemius1Log106515.8237.3439.69 F1,6=89.61 F1,49=0.66F4,49=0.25F1,49=3.28F1,49=2.09F1,49=0.00
P<0.0001 P=0.4189P=0.9063P=0.0761P=0.1542P=0.9573 [+]
4None418.8111.858.90F1,6=2.31F1,26=1.34F4,26=2.73F1,26=0.26F1,26=0.00
P=0.1794P=0.2584P=0.0506P=0.6117P=0.9765
Glycogen synthase total activity1Log10631.681.732.33F1,6=0.06 F1,48=5.89 F4,48=0.55F1,48=0.42 F1,48=20.32
P=0.8118 P=0.0190 P=0.7006P=0.5179 P<0.0001 a
4Log10421.321.242.30F1,6=0.33 F1,27=26.43 F4,27=2.78 F1,27=1.37 F1,27=10.27
P=0.5850 P<0.0001 P=0.0468 P=0.2519 P=0.0035 a
Glycogen synthase activity ratio1Log106319.4420.6515.90F1,6=0.45 F1,48=5.34 F4,48=0.55F1,48=1.90F1,48=2.64
P=0.5269 P=0.0252 P=0.7008P=0.1749P=0.1110a
4Log104219.6821.039.80F1,6=0.37 F1,27=20.74 F4,27=0.98F1,27=0.64F1,27=0.49
P=0.5665 P=0.0001 P=0.4347P=0.4300P=0.4919a
Glycogen synthase fractional velocity1Log106385.6185.9078.72F1,6=0.01F1,48=3.55F4,48=0.10F1,48=0.60F1,48=1.28
P=0.9263P=0.0655P=0.9808P=0.4433P=0.2631a
4Log104285.3584.1076.70F1,6=0.13F1,27=2.10F4,27=1.45F1,27=0.04F1,27=0.72
P=0.7328P=0.1584P=0.2458P=0.8422P=0.4040a
  • Plasma glucose (mmol/l), glycogen (glucosyl units: μmol g–1 wet mass) in gastrocnemius, soleus and liver, and GLUT-4 (% of standard) in gastrocnemius of control (C) and high runner (HR) lines of house mice based on separate analyses of Groups 1–4 (nested ANCOVAs). For the effect of wheel revolutions as a covariate, the sign in brackets indicates the direction of the effect. Data were transformed as indicated to improve normality of residuals. Values are back-transformed least-squares means from SAS Procedure Mixed. Bold font indicates 2-tailed P<0.05, unadjusted for multiple comparisons

  • a Amount of time tissue was stored in freezer used as covariate