Table 5.

Statistics comparing pulls of proximal and distal pads (for males and females), male and female beetles (for proximal pads only as no significant differences are found between sexes for distal pads) and pulls and pushes

SmoothRough
Proximal vs distal pads (paired t-test)MalesFriction slidest4=–4.753P=0.009t4=4.897P=0.008
Shear stresst4=–3.939P=0.017t4=5.317P=0.006
Adhesiont4=–2.719P=0.053t4=2.132P=0.100
Adhesive stresst4=–1.599P=0.185t4=2.272P=0.086
FemalesFriction slidest4=0.283P=0.791t4=8.746P<0.001
Shear stresst4=–2.400P=0.074t4=7.385P=0.002
Adhesiont4=0.733P=0.504t4=6.437P=0.003
Adhesive stresst4=–0.123P=0.908t4=6.220P=0.003
Males vs females proximal pads (unpaired t-test)Friction slidest8.0=5.575P<0.001t7.9=–1.542P=0.162
Shear stresst6.5=2.613P=0.037t7.3=–4.470P=0.003
Adhesiont8.0=6.725P<0.001t5.6=0.030P=0.977
Adhesive stresst6.5=4.131P=0.005t4.7=–1.145P=0.307
Males
Pushing vs pulling friction force (paired t-test) Pad Distal Middle Proximal
Smootht4=6.163P=0.004t4=5.280P=0.006t4=10.084P<0.001
Rough t4=5.598 P=0.005 t4=4.313 P=0.013 t4=5.763 P=0.004
Females
Pad Distal Middle Proximal
Smootht4=6.717P=0.003t4=6.288P=0.003t4=5.142P=0.007
Rought4=10.646P<0.001t4=6.505P=0.003t4=8.689P<0.001