Table 2.

Spring constant, projected contact area and elastic modulus for proximal, middle and distal pads of male and female G. viridula beetles

Male (N=10) Female (N=3)
Pad:DistalMiddleProximalDistalMiddleProximal
Spring constant (N m–1)57.1±6.453.7±6.7145.4±12.782.1±7.055.3±5.6150.0±11.9
Projected contact area (μm2)65277±280226121±173787856±216966016±251227027±95669692±4876
Effective elastic modulus (kPa)34.2±3.281.1±9.565.1±5.453.6±6.188.0±10.592.3±5.5
Estimated cuticle modulus (GPa)16.1410.425.2410.4611.398.30
  • Values are mean ± s.e.m.