Table 1.

Morphological properties of the three tarsal adhesive pads in G. viridula

Seta properties
SexPadSeta typeArray height (μm)Hair diameter (μm)Max. tip width (μm)Seta angle to horizontal (deg.)
MaleDistalSpatula37.5±1.11.4±0.14.1±0.449.7±2.1
MiddlePointed38.6±0.82.2±0.22.2±0.345.3±3.6
ProximalPointed39.8±1.42.2±0.12.7±0.253.6±4.6
Discoidal25.7±0.32.3±0.16.0±0.658.3±1.0
FemaleDistalSpatula38.1±1.61.5±0.03.8±0.357.0±2.4
MiddlePointed42.2±2.52.2±0.12.5±0.154.8±1.7
ProximalPointed40.4±0.42.6±0.22.7±0.252.9±0.5
Approx. number of setae Pad composition by seta type (%)
SexPadTotalDensity (mm–2)SpatulaPointedDiscoidalLateral seta orientation [deviation (deg.) from proximal–distal axis]
MaleDistal550850077.610.312.18.2±0.5
Middle2007500095.84.245.0±3.3
Proximal7008000041.258.822.4±1.3
FemaleDistal650950083.816.2012.2±0.7
Middle15055000100046.5±1.5
Proximal30045000100052.2±1.2
  • Seta dimensions and angles (mean ± s.e.m.; N=3), measurements taken from one beetle of each sex