Table 4.

Mean peak stresses for femora of P. concinna with GRF magnitudes and orientations at peak tensile stress

Peak stress
IndividualTensile (MPa)Compressive (MPa)Axial (MPa)Shear (MPa)Peak tens. time (%)Peak comp. time (%)Neutral axis angle from AP (deg.)Net GRF (BW)GRF AP angle (deg.)GRF ML angle (deg.)Speed (CL s–1)
pc04 (N=20)39.1±0.2–44.7±0.2–2.9±0.119.3±0.59.9±1.212.1±1.017.5±0.90.39±0.025.3±0.6–13.2±0.50.7±0.10
pc05 (N=18)15.9±0.8–20.9±0.5–3.2±0.112.7±0.663.3±5.762.9±5.748.3±10.40.27±0.043.2±2.7–9.5±2.30.6±0.05
pc07 (N=21)21.3±0.5–26.5±0.5–3.2±0.110.8±0.750.4±5.639.3±6.444.2±8.80.35±0.056.1±2.3–12.2±1.50.9±0.10
pc08 (N=19)22.2±0.5–31.3±0.7–4.7±0.111.9±0.424.2±3.722.2±2.724.3±2.20.39±0.028.1±0.5–15.6±1.10.6±0.05
Mean ± s.e.m.24.9±1.0–31.1±1.0–3.5±0.113.7±0.536.6±3.233.6±3.133.4±3.70.35±0.015.6±0.9–12.7±0.80.7±0.03
  • Shear stresses are reported for counterclockwise rotation of the right femur as viewed from the proximal end

    Peak tension (tens.) and compression (comp.) time are shown as a percentage

    Deviations of the neutral axis from the anatomical anteroposterior (AP) axis of each bone are counterclockwise in direction (i.e. positive angle from horizontal at 0°)

    CL, carapace length; ML, mediolateral

    Peak stresses were determined from force platform loading data; N=number of steps analyzed

    Values are means ± s.e.m.