Particle velocity (mm s^{–1}) in directions i–vi | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Distance (mm) | (i) | (ii) | (iii) | (iv) | (v) | (vi) | F_{5,55} | P | |
Vertically oriented | 1^{*} | 7.78 | 11.98 | 21.41 | 17.52 | 18.48 | 25.47 | – | – |
2^{*} | 5.65 | 7.53 | 11.06 | 10.09 | 10.18 | 13.25 | – | – | |
3^{*} | 4.57 | 5.49 | 7.46 | 7.09 | 7.02 | 8.95 | – | – | |
4^{*} | 3.84 | 4.32 | 5.63 | 5.46 | 5.36 | 6.76 | – | – | |
5 | 3.31^{a} | 3.58^{a,b} | 4.72^{b,c} | 4.86^{c,d} | 4.67^{b,c} | 6.03 ^{d} | 11.70 | <0.001 | |
10 | 2.00 | 1.82 | 2.00 | 2.02 | 1.93 | 2.02 | 0.74 | 0.60 n.s. | |
15 | 1.33 | 1.26 | 1.41 | 1.26 | 1.29 | 1.33 | 1.62 | 0.17 n.s. | |
20 | 1.11 | 1.11 | 1.04 | 1.16 | 1.07 | 1.13 | 1.43 | 0.23 n.s. | |
Horizontally oriented | 1^{*} | 20.84 | 10.86 | 9.92 | 10.68 | 9.66 | 10.88 | – | – |
2^{*} | 16.22 | 9.15 | 8.27 | 8.90 | 8.21 | 9.17 | – | – | |
3^{*} | 12.87 | 7.78 | 6.96 | 7.50 | 7.03 | 7.79 | – | – | |
4^{*} | 10.39 | 6.67 | 5.92 | 6.37 | 6.07 | 6.68 | – | – | |
5 | 8.57 ^{a} | 5.82^{b} | 5.16^{b} | 5.53^{b} | 5.34^{b} | 5.83^{b} | 11.17 | <0.001 | |
10 | 3.34 ^{a} | 2.82^{a,b} | 2.31^{b} | 2.57^{b} | 2.64^{a,b} | 2.83^{a,b} | 4.17 | 0.003 | |
15 | 1.98 ^{a} | 1.76^{a,b} | 1.48^{c} | 1.54^{b,c} | 1.70^{b,c} | 1.76^{a,b} | 7.85 | <0.001 | |
20 | 1.55 | 1.44 | 1.35 | 1.41 | 1.36 | 1.43 | 1.76 | 0.14 n.s. |
See Fig. 1B for details on directions i–vi
Bold letters emphasize highest values measured at the given distance
Particle velocities measured at the same distances (⩾5 mm) but in different directions were compared using one-way repeated measures ANOVA (F-values given). Level for significance of difference: P_{corr.}⩽0.025. Values in a row that have same superscript letters did not differ significantly from each other (pairwise comparison: Tukey-test, P>0.05); n.s., not significant
↵* Values extrapolated from hyperbolic decay function (see Appendix 2)