Table 5.

Forelimb joints: angles at touchdown and lift-off, the amplitude of excursion and angle at mid-stance

Touchdown angle (deg.) Lift-off angle (deg.) Amplitude (deg.) Mid-stance (deg.)
Means±s.d.(N)Means±s.d.(N)Means±s.d.(N)Means±s.d.(N)
RangeRangeRangeRange
Shoulder joint
   Microcebus murinus120±9(76)82±6(92)49±8(75)80±8(75)
93–14164–9826–7560–97
   Eulemur fulvus165±9(60)89±9(60)84±9(60)82±9(60)
132–17964–11552–10354–96
   Saguinus oedipus144±8(44)94±7(51)51±8(27)98±7(25)
119–16272–10928–6484–107
   Saimiri sciureus140±7(73)106±6(92)39±9(73)105±9(73)
127–15693–11529–5587–118
Elbow joint
   Microcebus murinus85±9(74)101±9(89)40±8(74)63±6(74)
61–10576–11724–6141–74
   Eulemur fulvus153±9(35)126±9(35)60±7(35)76±9(35)
137–16998–14451–8350–97
   Saguinus oedipus122±8(42)106±9(46)36±6(35)86±7(25)
103–14089–12818–5873–100
   Saimiri sciureus135±4(65)132±3(65)30±6(65)104±7(65)
122–142126–13721–4378–113
Wrist joint
   Microcebus murinus187±7(63)215±9(89)76±9(63)225±9(74)
172–201168–24846–109201–249
   Eulemur fulvus195±6(30)223±9(30)61±8(30)228±8(30)
186–203208–23936–80221–238
   Saguinus oedipus186±4(26)202±9(33)43±9(25)211±9(25)
181–196181–22519–66200–229
   Saimiri sciureus194±3(45)212±6(45)50±9(45)219±9(40)
188–199199–22528–75198–233