Table 1.

Display train characteristics

Lab* Field
Means.e.m.MaxNMeans.e.m.MaxN
Total train (includes both stationary and helical phases)
   Pulses per train12.790.301916112.260.911923
   Mean and max train length (vertical) (cm)37.2960.735.2960.7
   Mean and max train duration (s)10.860.2916.38510.1014.12
   Swimming speed (cm s–1)7.760.554
Stationary phase
   Swimming speed (cm s–1)7.160.1379.24
   Distance: horizontal (cm)–0.080.2405.2685
   Distance: vertical (cm)–0.310.213.5985
Helical phase (see also Fig. 6)
   Pulse number after which helical phase starts2.850.02685
   Swimming speed (actual) (cm s–1)8.390.19213.38
   Vertical swimming speed (apparent) (cm s–1)5.41
   Mean width of helix (cm)0.730.020.838
   Length of one spiral (cm)1.96
   Duration of one spiral (ms)390
   Spirals per interpulse1.92
   Mean pulse duration (ms) (from Table 2)21003129
   Mean interpulse interval (ms) (from Table 2)75007494
   Mean interpulse distance (cm) (from Table 2)3.770.05494
  • * Lab observations with five males (four of them participating in courtship behavior) in the aquarium per trial

  • Distances and durations extrapolated after pulse 11 with mean lab interpulse interval and distance of the helical phase (because these values were extrapolated, s.e.m. and N values are not applicable)

  • The slope of the mean interpulse intervals plotted against mean interpulse distances r2=0.999 (see also Fig. 5)