Active MR (J s^{-1} kg^{-1}) as a function of speed v (m s^{-1}) | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Group | Species | Technique | Temperature (°C) | Body mass (g) | Equation | N | r^{2} | Reference |
Crickets | Gryllus bimaculatus | RT | 21 | 0.70±0.09 | 165.6v+1.2* | 14 intact | 0.80 | This study |
222.4v+0.3* | 9 autotomised | 0.80 | This study | |||||
Teleogryllus commodus | T | 23.5 | 0.95±0.07 | 161.4v+6.1 | 60 | 0.54 | (Full and Tullis, 1990a) | |
Ants | Atta colombica | T | 28 | 0.031 | 187.3v+3.7 | 11 | 0.64 | (Lighton et al., 1987) |
Camponotus sp. | RT | 25-30? | 0.012±0.004 | 122.7v+3.3* | 289 | 0.91 | (Lipp et al., 2005) | |
Formica fusca | RT ^{†} | 20-25 | 0.0047±0.0010 | 700.9v+?* | 6 | 0.93 | (Jensen and Holm-Jensen, 1980) | |
Formica rufa | RT ^{†} | 20-25 | 0.0091±0.0017 | 707.1v+?* | 4 | 0.79^{§} | (Jensen and Holm-Jensen, 1980) | |
Messor capitatius | RT | No correlation between speed and the cost of running | (Nielson and Baroni-Urbani, 1990) | |||||
Leptogenys attenuata | RT | 25 | 0.0054±0.0002 (13) | 189.0v+4.0* | 9 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993) | ||
Leptogenys nitida | RT | 20 | 0.0017±0.0003 (40) | 189.1v+2.5* | 6 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993) | ||
Leptogenys nitida | RT | 25 | 0.0017±0.0003 (40) | 207.4v+3.3* | 14 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993) | ||
Leptogenys nitida | RT | 30 | 0.0017±0.0003 (40) | 300.5v+1.8* | 10 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993) | ||
Leptogenys nitida | RT | 35 | 0.0017±0.0003 (40) | 186.2v+5.4* | 10 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993) | ||
Leptogenys schwabi | RT | 20 | 0.0085±0.0007 (43) | 260.7v+0.7* | 10 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993) | ||
Leptogenys schwabi | RT | 25 | 0.0085±0.0007 (43) | 186.7v+2.9* | 10 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993) | ||
Leptogenys schwabi | RT | 30 | 0.0085±0.0007 (43) | 277.3v+2.7* | 11 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993 | ||
Leptogenys schwabi | RT | 35 | 0.0085±0.0007 (43) | 170.6v+4.7* | 12 | (Duncan and Crewe, 1993) | ||
Megaponera foetens minors | RT | 25 | 0.0124 (18) | 121.5v+∼5.4* | 18 | (Duncan, 1995) | ||
Megaponera foetens majors | RT | 25 | 0.0404 (16) | 122.7v+∼3.3* | 16 | (Duncan, 1995) | ||
Myrmecocystus mendax | RT | 40 | 0.006±0.002 (16)* | 158.2v+5.6* | 16 | 0.54 | (Duncan and Lighton, 1994) | |
Myrmecocystus mexicanus | RT | 30 | 0.014±0.004 (16)* | 104.5v+1.7* | 16 | 0.50 | (Duncan and Lighton, 1994) | |
Pachycondyla berthoudi | RT | 25 | 0.027±0.002 | 165.9v+1.2 | 32 | 0.33 | (Duncan, 1999) | |
Paraponera clavata | T | 28 | 0.019±0.015 | 212.9v+0.1 | 6 | 0.56 | (Fewell et al., 1996) | |
Pogonomyrmex rugosus | RT and T | 34-43 | 0.017 | 188.2v+?* | 30 | (Lighton and Feener, 1989) | ||
Wasps | Dasymutilla gloriosa | RT | 30 | 0.076±0.023 | 168.9v+3.3* | 6 | 0.38, P<0.001 | (Duncan and Lighton, 1997) |
Beetles | Anthia fabricii | T | 22 | 2.25±0.07 | 40.1v+2.8 | x | 0.76 | (Lighton, 1985) |
Calosoma affine | T | 23.5 | 0.62±0.08 | 93.1v+1.5 | 17 | 0.71 | (Full and Tullis, 1990a) | |
Onymacris plana | T | 35 | 0.691 | 191.6v+2.6^{¶} | 16 | (Bartholomew et al., 1985) | ||
Pachysoma hippocrates | T | 22 | 3.05±0.21 | 88.7v+0.6 | 2 | 0.63 | (Lighton, 1985) | |
Physadesmia globosa | T | 35 | 0.652 | 39.1v+9.8 | 9 | ns | (Bartholomew et al., 1985) | |
Physosterna cribripes | T | 35 | 1.226 | 60.2v+2.9 | 1 | 0.99 | (Bartholomew et al., 1985) | |
Psammodes striatus | T | 22 | 2.89±0.31 | 31.1v+1.2 | 5 | 0.53 | (Lighton, 1985) | |
Cockroaches | Blaberus discoidalis | T | 25 | 4.08±0.76 (8) | 57.8v+2.7 | 8 | 0.79 | (Herreid and Full, 1984) |
Blaberus discoidalis | T | 15 | 4.15 | 116.3v+2.6 | 18 | 0.65 | (Full and Tullis, 1990a) | |
Blaberus discoidalis | T | 23 | 4.15 | 102.5v+3.9 | 43 | 0.83 | (Full and Tullis, 1990a) | |
Blaberus discoidalis | T | 34 | 4.15 | 120.0v+3.9 | (Full and Tullis, 1990a) | |||
Blaberus giganteus | T | 25-27 | 4.33+0.81 | 46.6v+0.2 | 5 | 0.93 | (Bartholomew and Lighton, 1985) | |
Eublaberus posticus | T | 25 | 2.20±0.32 (3) | 154.5v+0.3 | 3 | 0.75 | (Herreid and Full, 1984) | |
Gromphadorhina chopardi | T | 25 | 3.4 | 50.7v+1.4 | 0.76 | (Herreid and Full, 1984) | ||
Gromphadorhina portentosa | T | 24 | 5.2±0.8 (10) | 91.7v+2.3 | 30 | (Herreid et al., 1981a; Herreid et al., 1981b) | ||
Periplaneta americana | T | 24 | 0.78±0.09 | 126.2v+2.0 | 16 | 0.82 | (Full and Tullis, 1990b) | |
Periplaneta americana | T | 23.5 | 0.90±0.11 | 169.8v+0.9 | 30 | 0.84 | (Full and Tullis, 1990a) | |
Periplaneta americana | T | 25 | 0.73±0.084 (15) | 183.2v+1.6 | 29 | 0.88 | (Herreid and Full, 1984) | |
Flies | Protophormia terraenovae | RT | 30 | 0.043 | 254.0v+11.8* | 19 | (Berrigan and Lighton, 1994) | |
Spiders | Marpissa muscosa | T | 20 | 0.03±0.009 | 437.7v+4.1* | 30 | (Schmitz, 2005) | |
Myrmecotypus rettenmeyeri | T | 28 | 0.022±0.006 | 159.6v+11.2* | 5 | 0.92 | (Lighton and Gillespie, 1989) | |
Pardosa lugubris | T | 20 | 0.031±0.009 | 138.0v+5.6* | 24 | (Schmitz, 2005) | ||
Tarantula (subF Theraphosinae) | T | 24 | 12.7 | 8.0v+0.6 | 7 | |||
Mites | Dinothrombium magnificum | RT | 24 | 0.032±0.015 | 130.5v+1.1* | 10 | (Lighton and Duncan, 1995) | |
Crabs | Ocypode quadrata | T | 24 | 2.1±0.58 (5) | 69.5v+2.3 | 15 | 0.67 | (Full, 1987) |
Ocypode quadrata | T | 24 | 26.9±0.74 (5) | 16.0v+0.9 | 15 | 0.76 | (Full, 1987) | |
Ocypode quadrata | T | 24 | 70.9±3.49 (5) | 8.4v+1.4 | 21 | 0.42 | (Full, 1987) |
For Gryllus bimaculatus (this study), the data are presented for 14 trials of intact males only. Although a linear equation described the relationship between V̇_{CO2} and walking speed well (r^{2}=0.6697), a slightly better relationship was gained using a polynomial regression (r^{2}=0.7057); the linear relationship between metabolic cost of transport and walking speed is, however, presented to be consistent with the literature (e.g. Full et al., 1990; Herreid et al., 1981a; Lighton and Feener, 1989).
All values were converted to metabolic rate in J s^{-1} kg^{-1} [assuming a respiratory quotient, RQ, of 0.8 and an energy equivalent of 23.3 J ml CO_{2}^{-1} (Duncan, 1999), unless the authors specifically measured RQ], and speed in m s^{-1}. Sample sizes for body mass, where available, are given in parentheses; r^{2} values have been given wherever they were available; values have been converted to means ±1 s.d.
RT indicates studies that used a running tube, T indicates the use of a miniature treadmill.
↵* Values converted from V̇_{CO2}.
↵† A circular running tube was used, but the ants were encouraged to run at a fixed pace by a rotating steel ball (this data was analysed as `treadmill' for statistical comparison).
↵§ Excluding two outliers.
↵¶ Above ∼0.13 m s^{-1} the animals did not increase V̇_{O2} significantly.