Table 3.

Joint torque impulse measured during four experimental conditions

Torque impulse (Nm s)
Degrees of freedom (d.f.)Straight left (SL)Straight right (SR)Crossover (TL)Sidestep (TR)
Hip Y (extension)0.86±0.350.51±0.341.33±0.341.31±0.34*
    Z (valgus)3.86±0.27-3.59±0.254.14±0.25-4.02±0.23
    X (rotation)2.71±0.26-3.08±0.243.36±0.25-3.22±0.22
Knee Y (flexion)-0.76±0.25-1.09±0.230.66±0.24*-1.66±0.22
    Z (valgus)8.71±0.54-8.53±0.5010.07±0.52-7.24±0.47
    X (rotation)-2.23±0.162.03±0.15-2.71±0.151.89±0.14
Ankle Y (extension)5.07±0.674.57±0.675.91±0.67*5.27±0.67*
    Z (valgus)0.67±0.24-0.89±0.231.51±0.23*0.15±0.22*
    X (rotation)-0.60±0.060.72±0.06-0.58±0.060.74±0.05
MTP Y (extension)3.39±0.373.07±0.373.93±0.37*3.51±0.37*
    Z (valgus)-1.97±0.222.02±0.20-1.36±0.212.27±0.19
    X (rotation)0.26±0.090.11±0.090.94±0.09*0.97±0.09*
  • Values are least-squared means ± s.e.m. Asterisks indicate significant differences between values for the same leg during turning relative to straight running.