Table 2.

Joint angles at the beginning of steps for four experimental conditions

Initial angle (deg.)
Degrees of freedom (d.f.)Straight left (SL)Straight right (SR)Crossover (TL)Sidestep (TR)
Body
    Z (yaw)6±1-1±111±1*5±1*
    X (roll)2±1-2±1-5±1*-9±1*
    Y (pitch)3±23±23±22±2
Hip
    Y (extension)51±245±253±243±2
    Z (ad/abduction)21±1-18±120±1-18±1
Knee
    Z (ad/abduction)-40±140±1-44±1*34±1*
    Y (flexion)27±235±226±237±2
Ankle
    Z (ad/abduction)9±1-6±19±1-6±1
    Y (extension)-18±1-18±1-18±1-19±1
MTP
    Z (ad/abduction)5±2-6±14±1-2±1*
    Y (extension)-29±1-28±1-30±1-30±1
  • Values are least-squared means ± s.e.m. Asterisks indicate significant differences between values for the same leg during turning relative to straight running.