Table 1.

Parameters measured during four experimental conditions

ConditionStraight left (SL)Straight right (SR)Crossover (TL)Sidestep (TR)
N 40425663
Deflection, θd (deg.)-0.1±0.70.8±0.714.1±0.6SL18.0±0.6SR,TL
Initial body angle relative to trackway (deg.)5±1-1±1SL10±1SR,SL4±1SL,SR,TL
Initial body angle relative to imd (deg.)6±1-1±1SL11±1SR,SL5±1SR,TL
Body angle change, θr (deg.)-4±16±1SL5±1SL19±1SL,SR,TL
Initial rotational velocity Embedded Image (deg. s-1)-9±418±4SL14±4SL31±4SL,SR,TL
Body angle relative to imd at end of step (deg.)-1±15±1SL16±1SL,SR23±1SL,SR,TL
Initial transverse leg angle (deg.)8±1-3±1SL24±1SL,SR14±1SL,SR,TL
Transverse force angle (deg.)0±11±114±1SL,SR15±1SL,SR
COM vertical position (m)0.76±0/020.76±0.020.72±0.02SL,SR0.72±0.02SL,SR
Maximum resultant force (N)505±32534±32463±32SL,SR439±31SL,SR
Maximum vertical force (N)503±31522±31447±31SL,SR417±31SL,SR,TL
Full-sine component fitted to imd force (N)46.5±4.248.5±4.241.4±4.2SL,SR42.6±4.2SR
Acceleratory or braking force in the imd, β (N)-0.5±4.33.2±4.2-5.4±4.0-12.0±3.8SL,SR
Maximum fitted perpendicular force, Fpmax (N)-1.4±6.110.7±6.096.2±5.6SL,SR113.0±5.4SL,SR,TL
Perpendicular force impulse (N s)-0.2±1.01.3±1.014.0±1.0SL,SR17.0±0.9SL,SR,TL
Net torque impulse (Nm s)0.01±0.08-0.01±0.080.47±0.08SL,SR0.42±0.08SL,SR
Body rotation from forces θrwb (deg.)0±1-2±111±19±1
Body rotation from forces without braking/accelerationθ rwob (deg.)0±2-3±211±2SL,SR18±2SL,SR,TL
Initial velocity, Vi (m s-1)3.3±0.23.4±0.22.7±0.2SL,SR2.6±0.1SL,SR
Final velocity (m s-1)3.2±0.23.4±0.12.7±0.2SL,SR2.6±0.1SL,SR
Stance period, τ (s)0.19±0.010.18±0.010.22±0.01SL,SR0.22±0.01SL,SR
Initial foot placement in imd, PAEP,imd (m)0.25±0.010.26±0.010.29±0.01SL0.31±0.01SL,SR,TL
Initial foot placement perpendicular to imd PAEP,ip (m)0.01±0.01-0.03±0.01-0.18±0.01SL,SR-0.21±0.01SL,SR,TL
Leg effectiveness, ϵ0.2±0.10.3±0.10.9±0.1SL,SR1.2±0.1SL,SR,TL
  • Values are means ± s.e.m. Significant differences among conditions are indicated by superscripts.

    imd, direction of initial movement.