Table 1.

Mean forces and mean force coefficients during motion of a single wing and clap-and-fling force augmentation for 17 stroke patterns

Embedded Image 542519499500511519509510539509517497519524511508522
Embedded Image 436438429405420442438422444422437418428413454422440
Embedded Image 322279256292292271260285305285277269293323234282281
Embedded Image 2.852.732.622.622.682.722.672.683.032.752.792.622.742.432.362.492.56
Embedded Image
Embedded Image 1.511.311.191.361.361.271.211.341.721.511.461.401.521.220.881.121.12
Embedded Image 4128543429495036384051563420713244
Embedded Image 3725412427393830323041423321542834
Embedded Image 201337241130342021273037135491728
Embedded Image
Embedded Image
Embedded Image 5.84.512.
  • Absolute augmentation of mean normal flight force, Embedded Image, and mean vertical force, Embedded Image, are calculated from the difference between forces produced by two wings and one wing flapping. Embedded Image, mean force coefficient of normal flight force of a single flapping wing; Embedded Image, mean vertical force coefficient of a single flapping wing. All relative augmentation values are given in percent change normalized to single wing performance.

    Patterns A—Q correspond to the kinematic patterns shown in Fig. 2.