Table 2.

Kinematic excursion and lateral jet velocity phase lag

GroupObserved kinematic phase lagExpected kinematic phase lagObserved vs expected phase lag; post-hoc LSM P-valueLateral jet velocity phase lagObserved kinematic vs jet phase lag; post-hoc LSM P-value
Steady swimming at 0.5 L s-1
Anal fin–dorsal fin21.22±1.6023.32±1.400.229816.97±2.370.0001*
Dorsal fin–body-3.82±1.45-9.10±1.020.0001*
Anal fin–body17.56±0.7513.98±0.590.0001*
Steady swimming at 1.0 L s-1
Anal fin–dorsal fin28.51±1.5123.94±0.900.22989.07±1.950.0001*
Dorsal fin–body-6.06±1.36-9.80±0.900.0001*
Anal fin–body22.35±1.2514.15±0.510.0001*
Manoeuvres at 0.5 L s-1
Anal fin–dorsal fin28.34±5.3044.79±9.651.00024.50±8.210.7758
Dorsal fin–body-8.81±2.93-20.71±4.821.000
Anal fin–body20.18±3.5524.08±4.921.000
  • Values are percent of tailbeat cycle (mean ± s.e.m.)

    Kinematic phase lag, N=23–36 for each comparison group and evenly distributed between four fish

    Jet velocity phase lag, N=27–36 for each comparison group and evenly distributed between four fish

    LSM comparisons based on four ANOVAs (*significantly different P<0.5, Bonferroni corrected)

    Steady swimming ANOVA(1,5,3 total=401) phase lag = speed group fish speed×group speed×fish group×fish speed×group×fish

    Manoeuvring ANOVA(5,3 total=150) phase lag = group fish group×fish

    Jets vs kinematics steady swimming ANOVA(1,3 total=134) phase lag = group fish group×fish

    Jets vs kinematics manoeuvres ANOVA(1,3 total=54) phase lag = group fish group×fish