Table 1.

Kinematics of archer fish predictive and escape starts

Predictive starts Escape starts
VariableRangeMean ± s.e.m. (N)RangeMean ± s.e.m. (N)
Stage 1 duration (ms)12–6025.8±1.0 (76)12–6027.1±2.0 (34)
Stage 2 duration (ms)12–8833.0±2.0 (76)14–10041.8±3.7 (34)
Total duration (ms)30–14658.8±2.8 (76)30–14468.9±4.8 (34)
Max. linear velocity (m s-1)0.451–2.0940.883±0.037 (69)0.385–1.6810.957±0.066 (33)
Max. angular velocity (deg. s-1)387–46312 414±103 (72)1601–49243433±177 (31)
Max. linear acceleration (m s-2)17.3–118.442.8±2.2 (61)20.3–90.150.7±3.6 (30)
Max. angular acceleration (deg. s-2)52 982–447 646254 554±11 568 (68)113 014–660 660391 251±24 511 (31)
Size of turn (deg.)3.8–156.347.3±4.3 (76)1.4–128.460.4±7.0 (34)
Take-off speed (m s-1)0.420–2.0651.029±0.042 (76)0.315–2.1700.907±0.083 (34)