Table 1.

Comparison of the water requirements of pupae, males and females of Culex pipiens reared under diapausing and nondiapausing conditions

Pupae Males Females
CharacteristicND25ND18D18ND25ND18D18ND25ND18D18
Water content
   Initial mass (mg)3.45±0.093.47±0.083.59±0.112.01±0.102.10±0.202.15±0.153.60±0.103.66±0.125.16±0.21a
   Dry mass (mg)0.76±0.080.72±0.090.82±0.090.58±0.090.63±0.090.63±0.161.20±0.111.26±0.152.42±0.19a
   Water mass (mg)2.69±0.072.75±0.072.77±0.081.43±0.111.47±0.111.52±0.192.40±0.132.40±0.162.74±0.18
   Water content (%)77.9±1.479.2±1.677.1±1.171.2±1.870.8±1.370.8±1.266.7±1.365.5±1.453.1±1.2a
Water loss
   Rate (% h-1)7.17±0.167.26±0.117.08±0.135.08±0.094.80±0.104.71±0.153.57±0.143.37±0.152.31±0.16a
   Loss tolerance (%)29.2±0.928.9±1.130.1±1.433.1±1.033.3±1.333.9±1.135.4±0.936.3±1.235.5±1.7
   CTT (°C)36.2±2.135.3±1.736.3±1.339.4±2.138.3±2.838.3±1.941.2±1.840.3±1.941.4±1.8
Water gain
   Free water uptakeNANANA++++++
    CEA (av)1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
  • ND25, mosquitoes reared under a nondiapausing photoperiod (15 h:9 h, L:D) at 25°C; ND18, mosquitoes reared under a nondiapausing photoperiod at 18°C; D18, mosquitoes reared under a diapausing photoperiod (9 h:15 h, L:D) at 18°C; CTT, critical transition temperature; CEA, critical equilibrium humidity; +, does occur; NA, not applicable

    Superscript letters indicate that a value is significantly different for environmental condition within a particular stage or sex. Values are means± s.e.m. of 60 individuals