Input variables | Parameters | Source |
---|---|---|
t_{nul}, t_{max}, h_{nul}, h_{max}, α, plateau | Change in gape size with time | Fitted for each sequence based on observed kinematics |
t_{nul}, t_{max}, h_{nul}, h_{max}, α, plateau | Change in mouth displacement with time | Fitted for each sequence based on observed kinematics |
t_{nul}, t_{max}, h_{nul}, h_{max}, α, plateau | Change in flow speed with time | Estimated based on gape kinematics |
C_{d}, Re=300–10 000 | Based on Kils (Kils, 1982)^{*} | |
C_{d}, Re=10 000–85 000 | Measured | |
Added mass coefficient (C_{am}) | Estimated based on the fit of observed and calculated force | |
Strike initiation distance | Measured | |
Prey length | Measured | |
Prey diameter | Measured | |
Prey volume | Calculated based on length and diameter |
Parameters were recalculated for each strike, based on observed kinematics. Definition of input variables, used to calculate continuous functions for gape, mouth displacement and flow speed, followed Muller et al. (Muller et al., 1982): t_{nul}, initial value of the kinematic variable of interest; t_{max}, peak value; h_{nul}, time of initiation (first deviation from t_{nul}); h_{max}, time of peak value; α, a form coefficient for the rate of increase; plateau, the amount of time spent at peak value; C_{d}, drag coefficient (based on wetted area); Re, Reynolds number. The temporal patterns in flow speed were estimated based the relationships observed by Day et al. (Day et al., 2005)
↵* Based on measurements for Euphausia superba, similar in size and shape to ghost shrimps