Table 1.

Comparison of the maximum values of the examined parameters during the maximal voluntary contraction before (pre-exercise) and after (post-exercise) the intervention

Low strain (N=11) High strain (N=11) Control (N=10)
Moment (Nm)114.4±12.7137.7±15.8*109.5±15.2144.1±22.7*135.0±38.3141.2±39.2
Force (N)2093±3252688±350*2084±4472992±444*2702±8962869±735
Activation (%)96.7±3.398.8±0.998.2±1.798.9±1.398.1±1.297.3±1.8
Elongation (mm)12.4±3.714.4±3.4*13.8±4.313.6±2.815.1±2.616.2±3.4
Strain (%)4.6±1.55.4±1.3*4.8±1.64.8±0.95.1±0.95.5±1.2
Rest length (mm)275.0±36.2272.4±38.9288.6±20.6282.8±14.8294.3±20.8293.9±24.5
Stiffness (N mm–1)186.7±38.3201.4±41.2167.7±36.8228.1±39.7*180.2±42.5184.1±39.7
  • For the Control group, `pre' corresponds to the values at the start of the experiment and `post' corresponds to the values at the end of the experiment. Moment is the maximum plantar flexion moment, force is the maximum calculated tendon force, activation is the voluntary activation, elongation is the maximum elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis, strain is the maximum strain of the tendon and aponeurosis, rest length is the length of the curved path from tuberositas calcanei to the examined cross-point on the ultrasound images, and stiffness is the tendon–aponeurosis stiffness of the triceps surae. Low strain is the low-strain-magnitude exercise intervention, high strain is the high-strain-magnitude exercise intervention, and control is the group without any specific exercise during the 14 weeks of the intervention

  • * Statistically significant differences between pre- and post-exercised values (P<0.05)