Table 2.

Variation in bird-centered kinematics among flight velocities (0–12 m s-1) in the rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)

VariableValueFP
Body angle, β (deg.)24±1568.1<0.0001
Anatomical stroke-plane angle, γb (deg.)67±819.0<0.0001
Tracking stroke-plane angle, γh (deg.)43±21182.4<0.0001
Chord angle, αc (deg.)
   Mid-downstroke–26±83.30.0168
   Mid-upstroke56±2919.4<0.0001
Wingbeat frequency f (Hz)41±11.90.1183
Wingbeat amplitude (deg.)107±93.10.0202
Downstroke (%)50±24.80.0024
Angular velocity (rad s-1)
   Downstroke155±164.20.005
   Upstroke156±196.20.0005
Wingspan (mm)
   Mid-downstroke99±35.20.0014
   Mid-upstroke92±21.20.3554
Wristspan (mm)
   Mid-downstroke54±11.90.116
   Mid-upstroke52±11.40.2424
Span ratio (%)
   Wingtips93±33.90.0072
   Wrists98±12.80.0332
  • Values are mean ± s.d. among flight velocities (N=7), using N=5 birds per velocity

    Statistical significance of the effect of velocity, F and P values are from repeated-measures analysis of variance (d.f. 4, 6)