Variable | Value | F | P |
---|---|---|---|
Body angle, β (deg.) | 24±15 | 68.1 | <0.0001 |
Anatomical stroke-plane angle, γ_{b} (deg.) | 67±8 | 19.0 | <0.0001 |
Tracking stroke-plane angle, γ_{h} (deg.) | 43±21 | 182.4 | <0.0001 |
Chord angle, α_{c} (deg.) | |||
Mid-downstroke | –26±8 | 3.3 | 0.0168 |
Mid-upstroke | 56±29 | 19.4 | <0.0001 |
Wingbeat frequency f (Hz) | 41±1 | 1.9 | 0.1183 |
Wingbeat amplitude (deg.) | 107±9 | 3.1 | 0.0202 |
Downstroke (%) | 50±2 | 4.8 | 0.0024 |
Angular velocity (rad s^{-1}) | |||
Downstroke | 155±16 | 4.2 | 0.005 |
Upstroke | 156±19 | 6.2 | 0.0005 |
Wingspan (mm) | |||
Mid-downstroke | 99±3 | 5.2 | 0.0014 |
Mid-upstroke | 92±2 | 1.2 | 0.3554 |
Wristspan (mm) | |||
Mid-downstroke | 54±1 | 1.9 | 0.116 |
Mid-upstroke | 52±1 | 1.4 | 0.2424 |
Span ratio (%) | |||
Wingtips | 93±3 | 3.9 | 0.0072 |
Wrists | 98±1 | 2.8 | 0.0332 |
Values are mean ± s.d. among flight velocities (N=7), using N=5 birds per velocity
Statistical significance of the effect of velocity, F and P values are from repeated-measures analysis of variance (d.f. 4, 6)