Table 1.

Accumulation of lactate, succinate and alanine and a comparison to available carbohydrate stores

d.p.f.LactateSuccinateAlanineTotal%Stores*%Stores
442.0±3.10.51±0.065.4±1.347.966.270.1
862.2±6.61.9±0.026.7±0.0770.997.9114.5
1656.6±3.62.1±0.26.8±0.165.590.595.2
3228.7±4.81.0±0.24.0±0.633.746.552.2
  • Values are in nmol embryo-1 (mean ± s.e.m., N=3). Values were calculated by subtracting the amount of each metabolite at time=0 (normoxia) from the amount of metabolite present at terminal sampling, which was 21 days of anoxia for 4 days embryos and 60 days of anoxia for 8, 16 and 32 d.p.f. embryos. The percentage of carbohydrate stores was calculated using 36.2 nmol embryo-1 as the average glycosyl units available for anoxic end-product production [see text for details, glycogen and glucose data from Podrabsky and Hand (Podrabsky and Hand, 1999]

  • * The percentage of the glycosyl units accounted for by lactate, succinate and alanine

  • The percentage of glycosyl units accounted for by lactate, succinate, alanine and GABA, after taking into consideration the possible contribution of the amino acids in Table 2 to the production of GABA