Table 2.

Proteinase inhibitors identified from cDNA array screening as putatively upregulated (>twofold increase in expression levels) in liver of different species during hypometabolism

InhibitorFull nameFunctionSituationSpeciesReference
SERPINA1α1-antitrypsinInhibits elastase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, plasmin, kallikrein, collagenaseHibernationGround squirrel(Storey, 2004c)
SERPINA7Thyroxin-binding globulinPlasma transport of thyroid hormonesHibernationGround squirrel(Storey, 2004c)
SERPINB9Cytoplasmic antiprotease 3Inhibits caspase-1, granzyme BHibernationGround squirrel(Storey, 2004c)
SERPINC1AntithrombinInhibits thrombin, factor Xa, IXaAnoxiaRed-eared slider(Storey, 2004a)
Freezing and anoxiaPainted turtle(Storey, 2006a)
HibernationGround squirrel(Storey, 2004c)
SERPIND1Heparin cofactor IIInhibits thrombinAnoxiaRed-eared slider(Storey, 2004a)
Freezing and anoxiaPainted turtle(Storey, 2006a)
SERPINF1Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF)Non-inhibitory towards proteinases; acts as an anti-angiogenic factorAnoxiaRed-eared slider(Storey, 2004a)
  • The species analyzed were thirteen-lined ground squirrels Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, adult red-eared slider turtles Trachemys scripta elegans, and hatchling painted turtles Chrysemys picta marginata. Note that the serpin B clade are intracellular protease inhibitors and selected serpins such as A7 and F1 have lost their protease functions and taken on new actions.