Table 2.

Jumping performance of froghoppers

Body mass, Mb (mg)Body length (mm)Time to take-off (ms)Take-off velocity, v (m s−1)Acceleration (m s−2)g forceEnergy (μJ)Power (mW)Force (mN)
Neophilaenus
Best3.24.014.24200428282813
Philaenus
Averagea12.36.112.82800286484834
Best0.8754.7540055013615566
Lepyronia
Averageb17.67.21.54266727214194.47
Best4.6306731319012754
Aphrophora
Averageb28.39.61.52.51667170885947
Best3.4226723116410964
Cercopis
Best32.99.51.53.8253325823815883
  • a(N=10 jumps by 5 insects); b(N=10 jumps by 4 insects). N, number of jumps used to determine time to take-off and take-off velocity.

    Formulae: acceleration f=vlt; g=fl9.86; energy e=0.5Mbv2; power=elt; force=Mbf.