Table 1.

Summary of stomach temperature change variables for northern elephant seals and California sea lions for each quantity fed

Quantity fed
0.5 kg1.0 kg2.0 kg3.0 kg4.0 kgWater
Elephant seals (N=10)
Tmin (°C)33.6 (0.3)32.8 (0.2)31.9 (0.3)31.6 (0.2)30.4 (0.2)32.9 (0.6)
ΔT (°C)3.2 (0.3)3.9 (0.2)4.8 (0.2)5.2 (0.2)6.4 (0.2)4.1 (0.5)
tmin (min)12.2 (0.7)11.0 (0.7)13.2 (0.9)12.5 (0.6)11.8 (0.4)-
trec (min)61.7 (1.9)69.8 (2.2)77.7 (2.6)87.2 (2.3)88.1 (2.4)35.2 (2.2)
Area (s °C)5105 (507)6429 (473)7957 (579)9779 (406)11099 (464)2843 (375)
Sea lions (N=13)
Tmin (°C)34.3 (0.3)34.0 (0.3)33.4 (0.3)33.5 (0.3)32.8 (0.3)-
ΔT (°C)3.7 (0.2)4.0 (0.2)4.6 (0.2)4.6 (0.2)5.2 (0.2)-
tmin (min)10.0 (1.1)12.3 (1.5)10.1 (0.8)14.3 (1.3)10.9 (0.9)-
trec (min)55.2 (2.4)73.1 (4.5)81.2 (3.7)95.2 (5.4)93.4 (5.2)-
Area (s °C)4288 (225)5657 (282)7310 (383)8513 (480)9255 (458)-
  • Values are means (± s.e.m.).

    Owing to opportunistic water consumption by elephant seals, stomach temperature change ΔT for water ingestion is included.Δ T is the difference between initial body temperature and minimum temperature Tmin. Time to minimum temperature tmin is the difference between time at minimum and the time of first fish consumption. Recovery time trec is the time for stomach temperature to return to stable body temperature. Area was calculated based on the stomach temperature change as depicted in Figs 1 and 2.