Table 1.

Turning performance data

R (m)R/L (L)Uavg (L s−1)Umax (L s−1)ωavg (deg. s−1)ωmax (deg. s−1)
Minimum
Forward0.00010.00181.261.8946.2147.7
Backward0.00050.00910.701.2181.8135.3
Maximum
Forward0.05511.04424.516.18247.1501.8
Backward0.00490.09501.592.44162.1291.6
Mean
Forward0.0114 (0.0017)0.2477 (0.0365)2.52 (0.15)3.62 (0.19)136.4 (6.4)312.0 (13.5)
Backward0.0017 (0.0006)0.0340 (0.0116)1.04 (0.11)1.67 (0.15)128.0 (9.8)221.9 (20.7)
Forward (extreme 20%)0.0018 (0.0004)0.0423 (0.0088)3.97 (0.10)5.47 (0.16)198.4 (8.8)434.0 (14.1)
  • Values in parentheses are standard error of the mean.

    R, minimum radius of the turning path; L, body length; R/L, length-specific minimum radius of the turning path; Uavg, average linear velocity of the turn; Umax, maximum instantaneous linear velocity of the turn;ω avg, average angular velocity of the turn;ω max, maximum instantaneous angular velocity of the turn.