Table 1.

Summary data for C. paradisi take-off performance, separated by take-off mode

Anchored J-loopSliding J-loopDiveFall
N 11445
Duration
Take-off total (s)2.52 ± 1.100.70 ± 0.220.19 ± 0.043.26 ± 3.47
Preparation (s)2.04 ± 1.040.38 ± 0.15N/AN/A
Acceleration total (s)0.49 ± 0.090.33 ± 0.07N/AN/A
Vertical acceleration (s)0.30 ± 0.090.17 ± 0.05N/AN/A
Horizontal acceleration (s)0.19 ± 0.050.16 ± 0.04N/AN/A
Distance
Height gained (cm)0.17 ± 0.120.10 ± 0.080.00 ± 0.000.00 ± 0.00
Range 0 (cm)0.69 ± 0.180.55 ± 0.110.00 ± 0.000.00 ± 0.00
Range−1 (cm)1.19 ± 0.131.27 ± 0.280.25 ± 0.100.09 ± 0.05
Total range (m)8.64 ± 2.5612.16 ± 2.766.66 ± 4.113.83 ± 2.73
Velocity
Horizontal, max (m s−1)2.1 ± 0.22.1 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.3N/A
Horizontal, 0 m (m s−1)1.6 ± 0.51.8 ± 0.60.5 ± 0.1N/A
Horizontal, −1 m (m s−1)2.0 ± 0.72.5 ± 1.00.2 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.3
Vertical, max (m s−1)1.8 ± 0.40.9 ± 0.3N/AN/A
Vertical, 0 m (m s−1)−1.8 ± 0.9−1.0 ± 0.8−0.3 ± 0.1N/A
Vertical, −1 m (m s−1)−4.1 ± 0.3−3.6 ± 0.1−2.7 ± 0.3−2.4 ± 0.1
Resultant, max (m s−1)2.3 ± 0.22.0 ± 0.2N/AN/A
Resultant, 0 m (m s−1)2.5 ± 0.72.1 ± 0.60.6 ± 0.1N/A
Resultant, −1 m (m s−1)4.6 ± 0.54.4 ± 0.62.7 ± 0.32.5 ± 0.2
Acceleration
Horizontal, max (m s−2)14 ± 420 ± 24 ± 2N/A
Vertical, max (m s−2)16 ± 710 ± 30 ± 0N/A
Resultant, max (m s−2)20 ± 420 ± 74 ± 2N/A
  • Values are means ± s.d. N/A, not applicable.

    Note that maximum horizontal and vertical velocities and accelerations occur at different times; thus each snake's resultant maximal values do not represent combinations of those values.