Table 1.

Summary of homing results from pigeons released at two sites

Release siteGroupNnαrhcvt (s)hp (km h−1)
BolgheriSS1212098°0.18−0.10241″2.7
V11210245°0.56*−0.01225″6.6
ON1211183°0.91***−0.81217″Lost
MarinellaSS1212173°0.84***+0.79***169″Day after
V11211182°0.85***+0.75***176″6.6
ON1211145°0.02+0.02273″Lost
Pooled resultsSS2424031°0.41*+0.35**218″Day after
V12421351°0.39*+0.39**181″6.6
ON2422208°0.44*−0.39252″Lost
  • Bolgheri release site: home direction 336°, distance, 54.8 km, date of release, 5/8/05; Marinella release site: home direction 154°, distance, 57.4 km, date of release, 13/8/05.

    Groups: SS, sham operated control pigeons; V1, pigeons subjected to the resection of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve; ON, pigeons subjected to the resection of the olfactory nerve.

    N, number of birds released; n, number of birds for which the initial orientation was recorded; α, mean vector direction; r, mean vector length; hc, rcos(α-β), whereβ is the home direction; vt, median vanishing time (s); hp, homing performance: median homing speed in km h−1 is reported when available; `day after' and `lost' means that more than half the birds homed the day after the release, homed in the subsequent days or were lost; asterisks in the r and hc columns indicate the results of the Rayleigh and V-test respectively; *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.