Table 5.

Elastic properties of the toad cranium predicted from the elastic recoil model in simulations representing the maximum and minimum strain observed for each individual

Individualxm (mm) Max/Minxe (mm) Max/Minkt (N m-1) Max/Minbeff (Ns m-1) Max/Min
12.2/1.51.5/1.0561/5534.91/4.88
21.8/1.41.3/1.0576/5584.36/4.28
31.3/0.71.2/0.7714/5854.80/4.35
42.0/1.61.6/1.3581/5744.70/4.67
Mean1.8/1.31.4/1.0608/5674.69/4.54
s.e.m.0.2/0.20.09/0.136/70.12/0.14
  • xm, muscle strain; xe, connective tissue strain; kt, total spring constant; beff, effective damping coefficient.