Table 1.

Peak muscle and tendon stresses in terrestrial animals

Species (mass, kg)Muscleσm(kPa)σt(MPa)Am/AtActivityMethodReference
Horse (270)Fore DDF24045223GallopingInv. dyn.1
Fore SDF24034150
Gastrocnemius24528114
Human (75)Triceps surae15150167Running (4 ms−1)Inv. dyn.2,3
Quadriceps255
Hip extensors110
Triceps surae10133167High jumpInv. dyn.3
Quadriceps277
Hip extensors120
Goat (34)SDF587110Canter In vivo 4
Gastrocnemius7213175
Dog (36)Triceps surae24584296JumpingInv. dyn.5
Red kangaroo (6.6, juvenile)Plantaris (SDF)17042245HoppingInv. dyn.6
Gastrocnemius17084275
Rock wallaby (6.6)Triceps surae27939147JumpingInv. dyn.7
20128Hopping
Tammar wallaby (4.8)Plantaris (SDF)26237189Hopping In vivo 8
Gastrocnemius22734150
Cat (3.6)Plantaris (SDF)12317140Trotting In vivo 9*
Gastrocnemius738109
Kangaroo rat (0.12)Triceps surae29733120JumpingInv. dyn.10
Guinea fowl (1.3)Digital flexor-IV115876Jumping In vivo 11
1309Running
Lat. gastrocnemius13317117Jumping
405Running
Mallard duck (1.1)Gastrocnemius12118110Running In vivo 12
Frog (Xenopus) (0.10)Plantaris longus200420Swimming In vivo 13
  • DDF, deep digital flexor; SDF, superficial digital flexor; Inv. dyn., inverse dynamics.

    1Biewener (1998); 2Ker et al. (1987); 3Thorpe et al. (1998); 4M. P. McGuigan, E. Yoo and A. A. Biewener (unpublished); 5Alexander (1974); 6Alexander and Vernon (1975); 7C. P. McGowan and A. A. Biewener (unpublished); 8Biewener and Baudinette (1995); 9Herzog et al. (1993); 10Biewener and Blickhan (1988); 11Daley and Biewener (2003); 12Biewener and Corning (2001); 13C. Richards (unpublished).

  • * Stresses determined from in vivo forces recorded by Herzog et al. (1993) and cat tendon areas reported by Pollock and Shadwick (1994).