Spring model | Kinetic energy transfer model | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Species | fws (s^{-1}) | Teeth struck per wing stroke | Vibrating mass^{1} (μg) | Spring constant^{2} (β) (kg s^{-2}) | File tooth depth (mean; μm) | Power transfer^{3} (μW) | P_{ac}÷power transfer | Power transfer÷P_{Call} | at COM^{4} (m s^{-1}) | Mass (mg) | Est. P^{5} (μW) | P_{ac}÷est. P | Power transfer/P_{Call} |
S. borellii | 55 | 30.4 | 65 | 25 | 9.13 | 6.9 | 310% | 0.07% | 0.116 | 5.3 | 49 | 43% | 0.5% |
S. vicinus | 150 | 10.7 | 65 | 25 | 7.11 | 3.9 | 70% | 0.05% | 0.080 | 6.4 | 27 | 11% | 0.4% |
S. borellii÷S. vicinus | 0.36 | 2.8 | — | — | 1.3 | 1.8 | 4.4 | 1.4 | 1.4 | 0.8 | 1.8 | 4 | 1.25 |
↵1 Estimated for one tegmen as the product of the ratio of the average harp area for both species to the harp area for G. campestris times the estimated vibrating mass for G. campestris (Nocke, 1970).
↵2 β for one tegmen was calculated using estimated vibrating mass (see 1) and f_{C} of each species (Table 1).
↵3 `Spring model' power was calculated using Eq. 5.
↵4 Mass is for both tegmina (Table 3). COM, centre of mass.
↵5 The `KE transfer model' calculation assumes that the change in velocity during a tooth capture cycle is 20% of the mean closing speed. The capture and release velocities were calculated with Eq. 7 and power transfer using Eq. 6.