Table 1.

Typical RER values and conventionally assumed thermal equivalents of gas exchanges for major classes of metabolic substrates

Lipid*Carbohydrate*Protein (mammals)*Protein (birds)†
RER0.711.000.810.74
hCO2 (kJ l−1)27.821.123.825.4
hO2 (kJ l−1)19.821.119.218.7
  • Values taken from *Brouwer (1957); †King (1957).