Table 4.

Regional muscle work estimated within the pigeon pectoralis (32<N<47 wingbeats per individual)

Muscle work (J)
Pigeon no.Ant SBMid SBPost SBTBTotal
10.752±0.1030.309±0.0440.091±0.0140.139±0.031
20.734±0.1790.362±0.0950.150±0.0340.269±0.110
30.648±0.095
40.322±0.0500.350±0.0750.086±0.015
50.325±0.0530.461±0.0690.188±0.0310.169±0.032
70.652±0.1040.406±0.0610.112±0.026
Mean ± s.d.0.557±0.2170.423±0.1220.136±0.0430.166±0.0771.282±0.264
Fractional mean ± s.d.0.434±0.1560.330±0.1130.106±0.0360.130±0.044
  • Results are individual means ± s.d. Note that differences in regional and fractional muscle work are entirely based on differences in fascicle strain recorded within local regions and not due to muscle force, which was measured for the muscle as a whole.

    Regional muscle work (J) was averaged across all animals for which reliable measurements were obtained at each site, and the means for each site used to determine total muscle work. Fractional values of regional muscle work are dimensionless.