Cycle powers (weight support 74.5±7.7%) | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
For both wings | For a single wing or pectoralis | |||||
Aerodynamic power (W) | Body-mass specific power (W kg^{-1}) | Muscle-mass specific power (W kg^{-1}) | Peak force on a wing (N) | Peak force on a pectoralis (N) | Peak pectoralis stress (kNm^{2}) | |
Method for power calculation | ||||||
Direct measurements: mean kinematics and 5-site pressure map applied to 3 pigeons | 25.6±3.8 | 51.2±5.1 | 272.7±26.7 | 5.7 | 59.0 | 74.1 |
Induced power | 6.59 | 14.3 | 79.5 |
Induced power is calculated following Pennycuick (1989) with the mean wing span and mass from Table 3 and flight speed from Table 2. The induced power factor k is taken as its default value of 1.2. Muscle-mass specific powers are calculated assuming that the pectoralis dominates downstroke power and constitutes 18% of body mass. Muscle force and stress are calculated using the wing geometry (specifically the shoulder to delto-pectoral crest distance and the cross section of the pectoralis) from pigeons used in other studies (Dial and Biewener, 1993; Biewener et al. 1998; Soman et al., 2005) scaled to the mean body mass of the wild-type pigeons used here, for which a value of 7.385 cm^{2} was used for the physiological cross-sectional area of the muscle. These values, therefore, should be considered approximate.