Table 2.

Morphology, kinematics and results for acceleration-compensated experiments

Loaded mass m (kg)0.483±0.027
Wing span b (m)0.660±0.01
Frequency f (Hz)8.02±0.69
Flight velocity V (m s-1)4.46±0.27
Tail angle of attack Embedded Image (deg.)47.6±6.4
Inclination of wing stroke plane β (deg.)35.1±2.6
Tail area Stail (m2)0.0204±0.0020
Differential pressure: inner tail (Pa)18.2±1.0
Differential pressure: outer tail (Pa)32.9±4.5
Differential pressure: mean Embedded Image (Pa)25.6±8.5
Weight support %7.91±2.5
Direct power (W)1.70±0.2
Body mass specific power (W kg-1)3.68±0.58
Muscle mass specific power (W kg-1)19.3±3.0
Embedded Image 2.14
Embedded Image 1.44
Embedded Image 1.59
  • Values are means ± s.d. (N=3).

    The muscle mass used for the muscle mass specific power calculation is that of the pair of pectoralis muscles (18% body mass); while the power costs here are due to the tail, they are largely `paid' for by the wing-flapping musculature.