Table 6.

Range of motion of the ankle, the knee and the limb angle during ground contact phase in degrees for the different groups

Older adults Young adults
RunnersNon-activeRunnersNon-active
Ankle ROM
    Dorsal in stance22.7±6.425.4±8.625.8±5.521.2±5.5
    Plantar in stance**,‡‡37.3±6.843.3±7.943.1±4.849.2±7.3
Knee ROM
    Flexion in stance23.8±3.625.5±3.826.8±2.825.1±3.5
    Extension in stance18.1±5.923.4±8.724.7±3.121.4±4.9
Limb angle
    Touch-down-11.2±1.3-11.8±1.9-10.6±1.5-10.8±1.0
    Take-off**,‡‡26.7±2.228.6±2.224.1±1.426.6±1.6
Limb angle ROM (in stance)**,‡37.9±3.140.4±3.134.7±2.236.2±4.4
  • ROM, range of motion.

    Values are means ± s.d. of both legs; N=20 (older runners), N=10 (older non-active subjects), N=9 (younger runners), N=10 (younger non-active subjects).

    A negative limb angle is defined as posterior position of the COM relative to the midpoint of the foot in horizontal direction and a positive limb angle is defined as anterior position of the COM relative to the midpoint of the foot in horizontal direction.

    Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between older and young adults: *P<0.05, **P<0.01; significant differences between runners and non-active individuals (P<0.05); ‡‡significant differences between runners and non-active individuals (P<0.01); significant age-by-running activity interaction (P<0.05).