Table 1.

Summary of feeding mean kinematic variables for Kogia, pooled Tursiops, Tursiops open gape approach and Tursiops closed gape approach

Kinematic variableKogiaPooledOpenClosed
Feeding cycle duration (ms)470±139863±3371211±207662±207
Phase I duration (ms)39±6559±11020±6083±125
Phase II duration (ms)195±115493±276756±277340±115
Phase III duration (ms)36±7545±8877±12726±51
Phase IV duration (ms)200±85266±176359±248212±86
Maximum gape angle (°)40±1925±6.6025±7.3325±6.34
Max. opening gape angle velocity (deg. s-1)293±26184±5640±18109±55
Max. gape (cm)8.54±3.6012±3.2911±3.5112±3.24
Time to max. gape (s)282±147564±251782±253438±142
Max. closing gape angle velocity (deg. s-1)223±121120±54108±49127±57
Max. gular depression (cm)2.25±1.814.75±2.574.88±2.324.61±2.91
Time to max. gular depression (ms)283±153623±208695±217552±181
Max. gular retraction (cm)2.67±2.355.57±3.071.79±0.114.11±3.35
Time to max. gular retraction (ms)260±69397±197261±154438±196
Max. food velocity (cm s-1)41±23n/an/an/a
Max. hydraulic jetting distance (cm)2.59±1.13n/an/an/a
Max. hydraulic jetting velocity (cm s-1)22±5.90n/an/an/a
Max. tongue retraction (cm)n/a4.65±3.73n/a5.13±3.76
Time to max. tongue retraction (ms)n/a167±57n/a148±20
  • RSI, Ram-Suction Index.

    Values are means ± s.d.; n/a, not applicable. N=16 (Kogia), 30 (Tursiops).