Table 2.

Relationship between mass-specific metabolic rate, wingbeat frequency and body morphometrics of euglossine bees using conventional and phylogenetically independent contrasts (PIC) analyses

Conventional PIC gradual PIC speciational
ParameterEquationr2Pbr2Pbr2P
n (Hz)0.41n1.000.887<0.0010.87 (0.55, 1.19)0.787<0.0010.93 (0.70, 1.15)0.895<0.001
Mb (g)44Mb−0.310.797<0.001−0.27 (−0.11, −0.42)0.601<0.001−0.28 (−0.14, −0.43)0.647<0.001
R (cm)79R−0.760.862<0.001−0.71 (−0.43, −1.01)0.750<0.001−0.73 (−0.45, −1.01)0.770<0.001
S (cm2)67S−0.370.851<0.001−0.32 (−0.17, −0.47)0.699<0.001−0.35 (−0.22, −0.49)0.784<0.001
Pw (g cm−2)19Pw−0.980.2720.0270.027NS0.035NS
  • N=18 species for conventional analysis and 11 contrasts for PIC analysis.

    For gradual evolution, branch lengths from Figure 1 were used and for speciational model, branch lengths were set to 1.

    n, wingbeat frequency; Mb, body mass; R, forewing length; S, total wing area; Pw, calculated wing loading; NS, not significant.