Table 1.

Relationship between wingbeat frequency and body morphometrics of euglossine bees using conventional and phylogenetically independent contrasts (PIC) analyses

Conventional PIC gradual PIC speciational
ParameterEquationr2Pbr2Pbr2P
Mb (g)106Mb−0.310.862<0.001−0.30 (−0.18, −0.43)0.756<0.001−0.30 (−0.17, −0.43)0.723<0.001
R (cm)188R−0.750.933<0.001−0.80 (−0.59, −1.00)0.885<0.001−0.78 (−0.55, −1.01)0.853<0.001
S (cm2)160S−0.360.937<0.001−0.37 (−0.28, −0.46)0.899<0.001−0.38 (−0.28, −0.48)0.874<0.001
Pw (g cm−2)52Pw−0.880.2460.0360.046NS0.042NS
  • N=18 species for conventional analysis and 11 contrasts for PIC analysis.

    For gradual evolution, branch lengths from Fig. 1 were used and for speciational model, branch lengths were set to 1.

    Mb, body mass; R, forewing length; S, total wing area; Pw, calculated wing loading; NS, not significant.