Table 1.

Limits to initial muscle fiber angle (α) and final muscle fiber angle (β)

α (deg.)
Modelϵf=1%ϵf=5%ϵf=10%ϵf=20%β (deg.)
λz=13932272045
λyz4942362854
λy=17871645390
λyx9090909090
  • ϵf, muscle fiber strain; λx, longitudinal extension ratio of segment; λy, dorsoventral extension ratio of segment; λz, mediolateral extension ratio of segment.