Table 8.

Comparison of the body mass specific heart masses and the specific stroke volumes and cardiac outputs of different athletic and non-athletic birds and mammals

AnimalBody mass (kg)MH/Mb (g kg-1)fH (beats min-1)VS/MH ml (beats g)-1Q̇/MH ml (min g)-1Comments/Source
Non-athletic animals
    White rat0.2782.776130.35214.4 Gleeson et al., 1983
    Goat303.872660.54143.8 Karas et al., 1987
    Steer4744.132160.3573.0Jones et al., 1989; H. Hoppeler (personal communication)
Athletic animals
    Flying vertebrates
        Bat (P. hastatus)0.1019.417790.28i221.8i Thomas et al., 1984
        Bat (P. poliocephalus)0.6698.004760.34i162.7i Carpenter, 1985
        Homing pigeon0.35312.696630.27176.7Present study
    Running mammals
        Dog28.87.122710.45121.9 Karas et al., 1987
        Standard bred racehorse4537.782020.4080.7Jones et al., 1989; H. Hoppeler (personal communication)
  • i CaO2Cv̄O2 value used to calculate Vs and Vb was estimated from blood oxygen capacity or hemoglobin concentration per Bishop (1997).