Table 1.

A range of muscles with similar roles from animals of different size and their properties

Muscle typePo (N)Lo (mm)Stiffness (N mm-1)Relative stiffness (PoLo)
Hopping mouse gastrocnemius*3.67.37.715.61
Rat gastrocnemius*11.313.815.919.41
Human gastrocnemius8756515011.14
Wallaby gastrocnemius*13518.7212.91
Horse superficial digital flexor7167.51181.23
  • The calculated relative stiffness is normalised to muscle fibre length and maximum isometric muscle force.

  • * Data from Ettema (1996); data from Maganaris and Paul (2002); data from Swanstrom et al. (2005) and Brown et al. (2004).