Table 2.

Statistical significance of observed differences among means for pectoralis data in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) flying in different modes in a wind tunnel (N=7) and across different velocities in a wind tunnel (N=5)

VariableFlight mode (d.f.=6,2) P-valueFlight velocity (d.f.=4,6) P-value
Strain rate (L s-1)0.0013<0.0001
Strain (ΔL/Lrest)0.0007<0.0001
Fractional lengthening (ΔL/Lrest)0.13160.0004
Fractional shortening (ΔL/Lrest)0.0021<0.0001
Relative amplitude of EMG0.12460.0248
Shortening phase of wingbeat (%)0.29820.3242
EMG onset (%)0.03800.1492
EMG offset (%)0.03300.0161
  • Values are from repeated-measures analysis of variance.