Table 1.

Flight parameters and power estimates

Experiments Time-averaged model
Fly numbern (Hz)Φ (deg.)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageR (mm)Fly massa (mg)Fly massb (mg)RekEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImagePMech,low* (W kg-1)PMech,high* (W kg-1)Embedded Image (W kg-1)Embedded Image (W kg-1)Embedded ImageP*indP*proP*pro,ReP*acc,wingP*acc,virtP*acc
Free
   121214710619.650.22.481.200.961671.351.301.57124146871240.5417124438855143
   221113910819.949.32.371.110.901431.441.711.669711461980.591991326339102
   32251439818.945.22.310.610.871501.391.011.36819764820.571582346943111
   421114210519.645.32.501.060.971621.371.351.349711678970.551792387446120
   522715110419.549.02.401.220.921721.311.291.48130154891300.5317131479761158
   62211209919.144.52.300.570.871231.591.491.33506547500.63184521442872
Mean 218 140 103 19.4 47.2 2.39 0.96 0.91 153 1.41 1.36 1.46 97 115 71 97 0.57 17 94 36 72 45 118
s.d. 71040.32.30.080.270.04170.090.210.13273015270.031288171128
Tethered
   118913511820.267.62.460.630.951351.521.481.37657852640.601863286843111
   218614411019.857.42.490.810.961441.461.571.48789357780.581876306541106
   318812811620.165.02.440.580.931251.601.551.35526245520.63184923563591
   419413310919.559.42.410.560.921311.541.501.39587148580.61185625583695
   519510612020.369.52.610.431.021221.681.461.21395252390.63193719593695
Mean 191 129 114 20.0 63.8 2.48 0.60 0.96 131 1.56 1.51 1.36 58 71 51 58 0.61 18 56 25 61 38 100
s.d. 41450.35.20.080.140.0490.080.050.1015154140.020144539
Published c 209 162 104.5 19.7 30.3 2.47 1.05 1.28 0.5–0.7 21.4 85.4 38.4 43.9 23.5 67.4
  • a Estimated from lift

  • b estimated from regression on wing length

  • c Lehmann and Dickinson, 1997