Table 1.

Temperature effects on cardiac parameters

Conditions
ParameterTemperature (°C)StandardMaximalN
Heart rate (beats min-1)216.1±0.6a13.3±0.9a3
523.1±1.4a21.1±1.4a6
1036.4±2.4b33.4±3.4b6
1554.7±2.2c55.3±3.5c8
2078.2±3.1d83.8±5.2d7
25100.1±2.7e104.5±6.5e6
Stroke volume (ml kg-1)20.86±0.01a1.32±0.103
50.86±0.07a1.24±0.075
100.57±0.05b1.21±0.034
150.37±0.02c1.23±0.046
200.23±0.02d1.11±0.033
250.18±0.02d1.06±0.074
Cardiac output (ml kg-1 min-1)214.2±0.918.1±1.7a3
519.4±2.026.7±3.0a5
1020.6±2.640.8±5.0b4
1520.5±1.367.5±3.8c6
2017.0±2.389.8±7.5d3
2518.1±2.1106.2±5.1e4
Power (mW g-1)20.46±0.030.43±0.05a3
50.61±0.080.74±0.11a5
100.67±0.111.41±0.19a4
150.65±0.062.75±0.30b6
200.50±0.073.59±0.76b,c3
250.65±0.094.38±0.68c4
  • Values are means ± s.e.m.

    Values within a column that do not share a letter are significantly different (P<0.05); where no letters appear, no significant differences were detected.

    Standard conditions: input pressure 0-0.05 kPa, output pressure ∼6 kPa; maximal conditions: input pressure ∼2.4 kPa, output pressure >10 kPa. See text for details.