Table 1.

Mean tongue position (mm), translation (mm) and deformation (%), recorded by high-speed fluoroscopy

INIT (mm)MAX (mm)DIF (mm)REL (%)
M. hyoglossus:(#9+#10)/2-80.1±16.61-74.8±17.055.3±0.9910.8±0.5%
Anterior tongue:#7-#811.0±0.3517.7±1.246.7±1.3260.5±13.0%
Posterior tongue:#8-(#9+#10)/213.9±0.5531.6±1.6917.9±1.48128.0±12.5%
Total tongue:#7-(#9+#10)/224.9±0.5449.3±2.3224.5±2.4598.0±10.6%
  • The marker numbers #7-#10 coincide with the numbers in Fig. 1. Means ± s.d. are given for N=9 different tongue flick sequences. INIT, the initial (rest) position of the tongue (m. hyoglossus markers) and initial tongue length (mm); MAX, the position of the tongue (m. hyoglossus markers) and tongue length at maximum protrusion (mm); DIF, displacement of the tongue (m. hyoglossus markers) and tongue elongation from the initial position to maximum protrusion (mm); REL, displacement of the tongue (m. hyoglossus markers) and tongue elongation from the initial position to maximum protrusion expressed as a percentage of the initial tongue length.