Table 1.

Morphological parameters and maximum body weight-specific vertical force production for eleven species of euglossine bee

Taxonomic identification (N)m (mg)mw (%m)R (cm)ARpw (N m-2)FMR (%m)Fvert/mg
Eufriesea pulchra (11)366.7±36.80.48±0.041.38±0.306.59±0.3430.84±2.6338.3±2.52.11±0.13 (N=10)
Eufriesea schmidtiana (1)483.50.631.716.8027.5531.1b1.89
Euglossa crassipunctata (9)68.1±7.0n/a0.81±0.026.39±0.2616.15±1.5232.8±1.22.06±0.09 (N=8)
Euglossa imperialisa (29)165.9±22.90.45±0.071.11±0.046.80±0.3522.57±2.3732.1±2.32.01±0.12 (N=11)
Euglossa sapphirina (8)56.6±4.3n/a0.73±0.026.65±0.5417.49±1.3032.9±1.42.04±0.10 (N=8)
Euglossa tridentata (10)116.1±11.60.40±0.060.93±0.036.70±0.1522.23±2.0432.6±1.81.90±0.08 (N=10)
Eulaema cingulata (1)545.40.551.766.8829.7034.8b2.07
Eulaema meriana (11)817.1±95.40.77±0.052.17±0.066.28±0.1526.83±3.0733.7±3.51.77±0.11
Eulaema nigritaa (17)401.6±53.60.57±0.071.55±0.066.45±0.2926.37±2.8033.9±3.72.13±0.25 (N=11)
Exaerete frontalis (12)676.9±44.70.96±0.062.29±0.046.49±0.2620.50±1.7935.1±2.21.82±0.12 (N=10)
Exaerete smaragdina (3)323.1±84.60.80±0.171.65±0.116.17±0.2917.74±2.8035.7±1.0b1.87±0.08 (N=2)
  • m, body mass; mw, total wing mass; mmus, flight muscle mass; R, wing length; AR, aspect ratio; pw, wing loading; FMR, mmus/m; Fvert, maximum vertical force; g, gravitational acceleration.

    Values are means ± 1 s.d. Sample size N follows taxonomic identification unless otherwise noted.

    n/a, not applicable.

  • a Morphological data are pooled from 1997 and 1998 samples, whereas values of Fvert/mg refer to 1997 data only (see text)

  • b Values for FMR were calculated using the regression of flight muscle mass on body mass for congenerics (see text)