Flight pattern | Number of wingbeats where that flight pattern could be unequivocally identified | Free-flight sequences showing that flight pattern |
---|---|---|
Counterstroking | ||
LEV on forewing downstroke | 28 | Aeshna mixta sequence 1: (2) |
A. mixta sequence 3: (3) | ||
Aeshna grandis sequence 3: (7) | ||
A. grandis sequence 1: (3) | ||
Sympetrum sanguineum sequence 1: (2) | ||
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (11) | ||
LEV on hindwing downstroke | 2 | A. mixta sequence 1: (1) during pitch-down manoeuvre |
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (1) during pitch-down manoeuvre | ||
Conventional attached flows on forewing downstroke | 4 | A. mixta sequence 1: (1) forewing on pitch-down manoeuvre |
A. mixta sequence 2: (2) during roll manoeuvre at speed (forewing and hindwing) | ||
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (1) during pitch-down manoeuvre | ||
Zero aerodynamic angle of attack on downstroke | 2 | A. mixta sequence 2: (2) forewing and hindwing during roll manoeuvre at speed |
In-phase flapping | ||
LEV over both wings on downstroke | 4 | A. grandis sequence 2: (1) vertical acceleration |
S. sanguineum sequence 1: (1) take-off acceleration | ||
S. sanguineum sequence 2 vertical acceleration (2) | ||
Free slip critical point visualized on centreline | 5 | A. mixta sequence 1: (1) |
(100% of all wingbeats visualized with smoke on the centreline) | A. mixta sequence 3: (2) | |
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (2) | ||
Spanwise flow in LEV? | 10 | A. mixta sequence 1: (2) inwards on forewing and hindwing |
(7 with spanwise flow inwards from tip to root; 3 with spanwise flow outwards) | A. mixta sequence 3: (1) outwards; (1) inwards | |
A. grandis sequence 2: (2) outwards; (2) inwards during roll/sideslip | ||
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (2) inwards during yaw/sideslip | ||
Stalled (flat-plate) flow | 2 | A. mixta sequence 3: (1) initiation of roll on forewing upstroke |
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (1) on forewing at end of pitch-down manoeuvre |
LEV, leading edge vortex.
S. sanguineum sequence 2 is video S1 in supplementary material; A. mixta sequence 1 is the first section of video S2 in supplementary material; A. mixta sequence 3 is the second section of video S2 in supplementary material; the other sequences do not appear in supplementary material.