Table 1.

Flight patterns visualized in free-flying dragonflies

Flight patternNumber of wingbeats where that flight pattern could be unequivocally identifiedFree-flight sequences showing that flight pattern
Counterstroking
   LEV on forewing downstroke28Aeshna mixta sequence 1: (2)
A. mixta sequence 3: (3)
Aeshna grandis sequence 3: (7)
A. grandis sequence 1: (3)
Sympetrum sanguineum sequence 1: (2)
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (11)
   LEV on hindwing downstroke2A. mixta sequence 1: (1) during pitch-down manoeuvre
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (1) during pitch-down manoeuvre
   Conventional attached flows on forewing downstroke4A. mixta sequence 1: (1) forewing on pitch-down manoeuvre
A. mixta sequence 2: (2) during roll manoeuvre at speed (forewing and hindwing)
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (1) during pitch-down manoeuvre
   Zero aerodynamic angle of attack on downstroke2A. mixta sequence 2: (2) forewing and hindwing during roll manoeuvre at speed
In-phase flapping
   LEV over both wings on downstroke4A. grandis sequence 2: (1) vertical acceleration
S. sanguineum sequence 1: (1) take-off acceleration
S. sanguineum sequence 2 vertical acceleration (2)
Free slip critical point visualized on centreline5A. mixta sequence 1: (1)
(100% of all wingbeats visualized with smoke on the centreline)A. mixta sequence 3: (2)
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (2)
Spanwise flow in LEV?10A. mixta sequence 1: (2) inwards on forewing and hindwing
(7 with spanwise flow inwards from tip to root; 3 with spanwise flow outwards)A. mixta sequence 3: (1) outwards; (1) inwards
A. grandis sequence 2: (2) outwards; (2) inwards during roll/sideslip
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (2) inwards during yaw/sideslip
Stalled (flat-plate) flow2A. mixta sequence 3: (1) initiation of roll on forewing upstroke
S. sanguineum sequence 2: (1) on forewing at end of pitch-down manoeuvre
  • LEV, leading edge vortex.

    S. sanguineum sequence 2 is video S1 in supplementary material; A. mixta sequence 1 is the first section of video S2 in supplementary material; A. mixta sequence 3 is the second section of video S2 in supplementary material; the other sequences do not appear in supplementary material.