Table 2.

Responses of adult A. variegatum to entrained rumen odour and to individual chemostimulants of the rumen fluid odour and their mixtures

TreatmentTicks tested (N)Source dose% Attraction1% Change in speed1
Entrained rumen fluid odour171/10 dilution+42***,a+4e,f
Single components
   Butanoic acid1610 ng+34***,a,b–34**,f,g
   Isobutanoic acid2910 ng–1 μg+32***,a,b–9*,e,f
   4-Methylphenol1110 ng+24**,b,c–2e
   3-Methylindole2010 ng+12*,b,c–7e,f
   Acetic acid141 μg+15*,b,c+3e
   Propanoic acid2010 ng+22***,a,b–12***,f
Mixtures
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol: 3-methylindole181 μg:100 ng:10 ng:10 ng+25***,a,b–3e,f
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol: 3-methylindole111 μg:10 ng:10 ng:10 ng+3c–5e,f
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol: 3-methylindole2010 ng:10 ng:10 ng:10 ng+2c+6e
   2Methane1370 ppm+1c–6e,f
  • 1 Median % change compared with control

  • * P<0.05

  • ** P<0.01

  • *** P<0.001; Wilcoxon signed rank test. Treatments sharing the same letter are not significantly different; (P>0.05; Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test

  • 2 Estimated concentration in the air stream