Table 4.

A comparison of flight costs measured in this study compared to those predicted using allometric equations

Flight cost (W)
Equation1
BirdAverage mass (g)This studyABCDEFG
Sunbirds
   Bla/ora5.723.400.941.381.180.860.611.851.14
   Pur/ora5.821.280.961.391.200.870.621.881.15
   Ora/ora5.691.310.941.371.180.860.611.851.14
   Yellow6.832.481.091.551.350.990.712.131.30
   White6.040.740.981.431.230.900.641.931.19
   Green6.091.640.991.441.240.910.641.951.20
   Bla/Pur6.560.711.051.511.310.960.692.071.26
   Purple6.191.561.001.451.250.920.651.971.21
   Mean1.64±0.320.99±0.021.44±0.021.24±0.020.91±0.020.65±0.01*1.95±0.041.20±0.02
Starlings
   a72.1718.157.307.917.356.765.2713.617.75
   b67.3122.526.907.546.996.394.9712.887.35
   c71.0122.057.217.827.266.675.2013.437.65
   d71.2123.097.237.837.276.695.2113.467.67
   g71.4919.257.257.867.306.715.2313.507.69
   h65.6922.496.777.416.866.264.8712.637.22
   i75.5821.837.588.167.597.025.4914.118.02
   j69.7216.547.107.727.176.575.1213.247.55
   k75.8219.087.608.187.617.045.5014.148.04
   Mean20.55±0.787.22±0.09**7.82±0.08**7.27±0.08**6.68±0.09**5.21±0.07**13.44±0.17**7.66±0.09**
  • Asterisks indicate significant difference from the measured value for each species (*P=0.02; **P<0.001).

  • 1 A, Speakman and Racey (1991): birds and bats; B, Butler and Bishop (1999), forward flapping flight including hummingbirds; C, Berger and Hart (1974), forward flapping flight (not including hummingbirds); D, Norberg (1996), doubly labelled water, mass loss and wind tunnel respirometry; E, Norberg (1996), only the doubly labelled water technique; F, Masman and Klaassen (1987), wind tunnel respirometry; G, Masman and Klaassen (1987), DLW and mass loss